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(Solution Download) State Consumption of Soft Drinks per Capita population, 2008 Per Capita Income ($1000) Mean Annual T


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

State

Consumption of Soft

 

Drinks per Capita

population,

 

2008

Per Capita Income

 

($1000)

Mean Annual

 

Temperature, F

% obese adultsdentists per 1000

 

people

physicians per

 

100,000

number of food

 

service businesses, 2006

% smokers,

 

total

% male smokers% female

 

smokers

Alabama2004,661,900136628.90.540552135215.1105777390523.326.320.6
Arizona1506,500,180176221.20.71736475207.5306528546318.121.714.7
Arkansas2372,855,390116326.10.491351444202.8907755252623.725.921.7
California13536,756,666255622.20.954221474262.43124573642414.918.511.4
Colorado1214,939,456195216.80.842198007258.6792506591417.919.316.4
Connecticut1183,501,252275019.70.944233663368.094238538511718.915.3
Delaware217873,092285221.10.546334178249.919154187421.723.320.2
Florida24218,328,340187222.90.74709439242.5885666168382123.618.7
Georgia2959,685,744146424.70.539555867217.323026788772022.417.7
Idaho851,523,816164620.80.779621687169.0459711165816.818.715
Illinois11412,901,5632452230.764481017275.17988271293920.524.217
Indiana1846,376,792205225.50.628529204214.8880498628124.126.321.9
Iowa1043,002,555165023.50.715390726186.6814662345321.523.219.9
Kansas1432,802,134175623.20.632018312220.83337128722022.218
Kentucky2304,269,245135625.80.764303759229.9293831353928.629.128.1
Louisiana2694,410,7961569270.610320677266.5489364380023.428.620.5
Maine1111,316,456164123.40.622124856270.0567656194620.921.820
Maryland2175,633,597215423.90.942914447415.4582301521417.819.116.7
Massachusetts1146,497,967224718.41.139894986462.2511707775017.819.416.4
Michigan10810,003,422214725.40.801025889245.0760194959922.424.820.1
Minnesota1085,220,393184122.60.793618411286.6791263545618.318.518.2
Mississippi2482,938,618106529.50.490706856176.9087523230425.127.922.5
Missouri2035,911,605195724.90.616414662241.634323598423.324.722.1
Montana77967,440194419.70.787645745220.826734616871918.519.6
Nebraska971,783,432164923.21.030036469241.6402811207918.619.617.7
Nevada1662,600,167244821.10.719569166184.7704435263222.222.921.4
New Hampshire1771,315,809183521.60.767588609263.3670369170318.719.318.2
New Jersey1438,682,661245421.90.95466125310.5142265944018.120.815.6
New Mexico1571,984,356155621.50.558367551239.4864624198120.222.617.8
New York11119,490,297254822.10.909632111392.32509092124618.31917.6
North

 

Carolina

3309,222,414135924.20.592578039252.989187874522.125.319
North Dakota63641,481143924.60.636028191242.818073689219.62118.1
Ohio16511,485,910225125.30.689888742264.1660931170522.524.920.2
Oklahoma1843,642,361168224.90.606749304172.2166779334925.127.922.5
Oregon683,790,060195121.20.699197374270.3229987487818.519.717.2
Pennsylvania12112,448,279205024.30.81585575297.05912591310921.522.320.8
Rhode Island1381,050,7882050190.653795057366.3322749144919.319.718.9
South

 

Carolina

2374,479,800126525.10.612527345228.7995901453622.325.719.2
South Dakota95804,194134523.80.589410018219.8437434116620.421.619.2
Tennessee2366,214,888136027.20.675152955263.7112024557222.623.821.5
Texas22224,326,974176925.80.533646314211.58949782062118.120.615.6
Utah1002,736,424165020.40.814566748211.798688922319.810.49.2
Vermont64621,270164418.70.775830154362.71373349741819.416.7
Virginia2707,769,089165823.10.752597891269.9373692756319.320.118.5
Washington776,549,224204922.20.883310756265.2522797768417.118.915.3
West Virginia1441,814,468155527.60.632141212229.0936887172925.725.426
Wisconsin975,627,967194623.20.738632618256.5821039706020.823.418.3
Wyoming102532,668194620.80.643928301184.464586785821.623.819.4

 

Estimate the following multiple regression models. Look at each

 

set of results critically and consider how you would interpret the

 

strengths and weaknesses of each model. C, the dependent

 

variable, will always be A????1Consumption of Soft Drinks per Capita;A????1

 

for independent variables, use the following specifications. (The

 

notation f(X, Y, Z) means A????1a function of

 

X, Y, Z; i.e., X, Y,

 

and Z are your independent variables. Even though it isnA????1t

 

listed, each model will include an intercept.)

 

Model A: C = f(% obese, dentists, physicians)

 

Model B: C = f(food services, % smokers total)

 

Model C: C = f(food services, % male smokers, % female

 

smokers)

 

Model D: C = f(food services, % smokers total, % male

 

smokers)

 

Model E: C = f(per capita income, mean annual temp)

 

Model F: C = f(mean annual temp, % obese, dentists,

 

food services, % male smokers)

 

Model G: C = f(mean annual temp, % obese, dentists,

 

food services, % smokers total)

 

Question 1

 

A state that currently has 11,000 food service businesses also

 

currently has 20% of its population who smoke (total, both male and

 

female). The state is considering a major initiative to reduce its

 

smoking population to 15%. If it is successful, this will also

 

cause soft drink consumption to fall from about 165 drinks annually

 

to about how many drinks annually?

 

What seems to be the relationship between soft drink consumption

 

and the percent who smoke?

 

a. It is difficult to draw any

 

conclusions because the smoker variables were all insignificant (at

 

the 10% level) in all models.

 

b. % smokers in total seems important (in model B), but once you

 

separate male vs. female smokers it appears that it is only % male

 

smokers that is significantly related to soft drink

 

consumption.

 

c. For the smoker variables that are statistically significant,

 

the relationship between % smokers and soft drink consumption

 

appears to be negative.

 

d. As the % smokers rise, soft drink consumption increases,

 

since all of the smoking coefficients in models B-D were

 

positive.

 

Question 3

 

How would you interpret the coefficient for dentists?

 

a. As the number of dentists

 

increases by 1 per 1000 people, annual soft drink consumption

 

decreases by about 175 per year.

 

b. As the number of dentists increases by 1 per 1000 people,

 

annual soft drink consumption decreases by about 2.265% per

 

year.

 

c. As the number of dentists increases by 1 per 1000 people,

 

annual soft drink consumption increases by about 2.85% per

 

year.

 

d. When the number of dentists per 1000 people decreases by

 

about 175, then soft drink consumption per capita is expected to

 

increase by 1 unit annually.

 

Of all the variables in models E through G, mean annual

 

temperature is the only one that is statistically significant (at

 

the 10% level).

 

True

 

False

 


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